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|Title:||Prophetic cupping (hijamah) treatment for chronic degenerative disease patients from medical and historical philology perspectives: Indonesia And Malaysia approach|
|Authors:||Flori Ratna Sari|
|Abstract:||Cupping has been practiced throughout centuries in many cultures, however, the origin of cupping remains uncertain. Firstly defined in ancient Egypt culture, it spreads to many cultures including Greek, Roman, Europe and Asian continent. Therefore, cupping was widely accepted as the treatment for various diseases throughout centuries and cultures. Rasulullah saw strongly suggest routine cupping to not only maintain the health but also cure the disease. However, which cupping is defined, as prophetic cupping and which procedure is defined, as effective healing cupping remain unclear. This study combines both the philological and historical qualitative method and quasi experimental quantitative method to observe the history of cupping in Indonesia, the way it is transferred to practitioners, the variety of cupping practiced in Indonesia and Malaysia, the knowledge of both patient and practitioner of cupping, the efficacy of cupping practices in many chronic degenerative diseases and the proposed cupping standard of procedure. We found that 3342 members registered as cupping therapists and this number increases every year in Indonesia. There are 38 branches of Klinik Sehat dan Rumah Terapi Sehat throughout Indonesia performing cupping therapy. Both data indicate that community demand for cupping therapy (hijamah) as an alternative medication in Indonesia is increasing. Furthermore, cupping practitioners (n=4), who mostly do not have medical background, have wide variety of skills, knowledge, and continuing ability so that requirement for cupping practitioner to apply cupping on patients should be acknowledged by government to maintain the standard and quality of cupping practice. Additionally, the respondents (n = 15) have positive perspectives and would recommend cupping therapy to other people. Comparing to cupping practices in Malaysia observed through Ziad Clinic, Pasir Puteh, Kelantan, we found that Malaysian government nationally regulates cupping procedure through the traditional medicine and herbal department in the Ministry of Health. Therefore, to manage cupping clinic with quality of services and comprehensive care with attention to patients and practitioners safety is very important in Indonesia. Conclusively, there should be a national standard of procedure for minimal cupping application on a patient to protect both patients and practitioners. Interestingly, we found that 7 of 15 patients have target cell that is usually expressed at the patient with haemoglobinopathy or liver function disturbances due to changes in plasma lipid concentration. Further analysis should be done to conclude this result. From the laboratory works, we have shown that cupping improved patients’ parameter in hypertension, hypotension, diabetes mellitus, hyperuricemia, hypercholesterolemia by 50%, 100%, 33%, 22% and 50%, respectively. In conclusion, prophetic cupping procedure claimed by Waroeng Sehat may offer beneficial effect on chronic degenerative disease patients.|
|Appears in Collections:||Laporan Penelitian|
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