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|Title:||Book Review : Melacak pengaruh dan pergeseran orientasi tamatan kairo|
|Series/Report no.:||Vol. 2, No. 3, 1995;|
|Abstract:||In the last few years there have emerged some new tendencies in studying Muslim societies. One of the most important of these is the study of religio-cultural exchange among the various Muslim societies in the world. There is little doubt that this kind of study is both interesting and challenging. It involves not only a form of comparative study of the Muslim societies concerned, but also study of how various disparate Muslim societies have influenced each other in the course of history. This study is one of these. It aims to analyze the role which the Azhar, one of the oldest universities in the world and one of the most important centers of Islamic learning, played in the formation of an important religious and intellectual group in Indonesia. In fact, it aims on a broader level to analyze the exchange of Islamic scholarship between Egypt and Indonesia. The author argues that the study of this exchange is important for two major reasons. Firstly, the practical outcome of the rising pan Islamic movements by the end of the nineteenth century which led to a new wave of Islamic scholarship and cultural exchange among Muslim countries. Secondly, the formation and extension of organized institutional exchange during the period of the creation of the new nation states. These issues also shed lights on contemporary revivalist or fundamentalist movements. The flow of Indonesian students at al-Azhar is analyzed by the author in three different historical periods which gave birth to different types of "Azharis". These are: the colonial period, the post colonial period, and the seventies and eighties. This latter period is qualified by the author as the "Petro-Islam" phase where the international dimension of Islam seems to have gained a greater significance than in previous times. Thanks to oil money, Saudi Arabia pushed itself into the center stage of political and religious developments in the Middle East. According to the author, Indonesian students at al-Azhar, who later became Muslim scholars, teachers, preachers, and state functionaries, played a decisive role in the formation of the state and the political process in the Indonesian archipelago from early times, but in particular from the beginning of this century with the flourishing of Islamic reformist ideas. This study, therefore ,focuses upon the relationship between al-Azhar and Indonesian political and intellectual groups, and also on Islamic institutions which played an important role during the emergence of the Indonesian state. However, the influence of al-Azhar graduates upon Indonesian socio-political lifo, particularly at the national level, has been waning at least since the seventies. This is due not only to the fact that fewer and fower Indonesians have been able to gain M.A. and PhD degrees since this period, but also to the fact that most al-Azhar graduates at the college level returned to their villages and, therefore, disappeared into obscurity. On the other hand, this study argues that in the last two decades, many Indonesian students have been increasingly attracted by the fundamentalist tendencies that have gained momentum in Cairo, partly because of the rise of the so-called "Petro-Islam". The difficulties faced by Indonesian students in Cairo regarding the al-Azhar academic system, scholarship, accommodation, etc. are other crucial reasons why these students subscribed to Islamic fundamentalism. This group attempts to implant a more strict interpretation of Islam, including the use of hijab among female students orjalabiyyah among male students. It can be expected that this group will soon run into conflict with modernist students who hold a broader and more tolerant interpretation of Islam.|
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